Fitness

In Growing Artificial Societies, Axtell and Epstein learn from their study of the Sugarscape  agent-based modeling environment to conceive of fitness as an emergent property because instead of being a characteristic of an individual per se it involves “sustainable co-evolution with one’s environment” [63]. Imagine a world power that invades a weak developing state on…

A World in Flux

Viewing the world as composed of a series of bell-curve populations (e.g., the members of a species or a political faction) where the curves touch at the tails and oscillate offers a more realistic view than the simple view of the world as a set of fixed categories. The view of the world as being…